< cpp‎ | utility
Utilities library
General utilities
Date and time
Function objects
Formatting library (C++20)
Relational operators (deprecated in C++20)
Integer comparison functions
Swap and type operations
Common vocabulary types
Elementary string conversions
Defined in header <tuple>
template< class... Types >
class tuple;
(since C++11)

Class template std::tuple is a fixed-size collection of heterogeneous values. It is a generalization of std::pair.

If std::is_trivially_destructible<Ti>::value is true for every Ti in Types, the destructor of tuple is trivial.

Template parameters

Types... - the types of the elements that the tuple stores. Empty list is supported.

Member functions

constructs a new tuple
(public member function)
assigns the contents of one tuple to another
(public member function)
swaps the contents of two tuples
(public member function)

Non-member functions

creates a tuple object of the type defined by the argument types
(function template)
creates a tuple of lvalue references or unpacks a tuple into individual objects
(function template)
creates a tuple of forwarding references
(function template)
creates a tuple by concatenating any number of tuples
(function template)
tuple accesses specified element
(function template)
(removed in C++20)(removed in C++20)(removed in C++20)(removed in C++20)(removed in C++20)(C++20)
lexicographically compares the values in the tuple
(function template)
specializes the std::swap algorithm
(function template)

Helper classes

obtains the size of tuple at compile time
(class template specialization)
obtains the type of the specified element
(class template specialization)
specializes the std::uses_allocator type trait
(class template specialization)
determines the common reference type of a tuple and a tuple-like type
(class template specialization)
determines the common type of a tuple and a tuple-like type
(class template specialization)
placeholder to skip an element when unpacking a tuple using tie

Deduction guides (since C++17)


Until N4387 (applied as a defect report for C++11), a function could not return a tuple using copy-list-initialization:

std::tuple<int, int> foo_tuple() 
  return {1, -1};  // Error until N4387
  return std::tuple<int, int>{1, -1}; // Always works
  return std::make_tuple(1, -1); // Always works


#include <tuple>
#include <iostream>
#include <string>
#include <stdexcept>
std::tuple<double, char, std::string> get_student(int id)
    if (id == 0) return std::make_tuple(3.8, 'A', "Lisa Simpson");
    if (id == 1) return std::make_tuple(2.9, 'C', "Milhouse Van Houten");
    if (id == 2) return std::make_tuple(1.7, 'D', "Ralph Wiggum");
    throw std::invalid_argument("id");
int main()
    auto student0 = get_student(0);
    std::cout << "ID: 0, "
              << "GPA: " << std::get<0>(student0) << ", "
              << "grade: " << std::get<1>(student0) << ", "
              << "name: " << std::get<2>(student0) << '\n';
    double gpa1;
    char grade1;
    std::string name1;
    std::tie(gpa1, grade1, name1) = get_student(1);
    std::cout << "ID: 1, "
              << "GPA: " << gpa1 << ", "
              << "grade: " << grade1 << ", "
              << "name: " << name1 << '\n';
    // C++17 structured binding:
    auto [ gpa2, grade2, name2 ] = get_student(2);
    std::cout << "ID: 2, "
              << "GPA: " << gpa2 << ", "
              << "grade: " << grade2 << ", "
              << "name: " << name2 << '\n';


ID: 0, GPA: 3.8, grade: A, name: Lisa Simpson
ID: 1, GPA: 2.9, grade: C, name: Milhouse Van Houten
ID: 2, GPA: 1.7, grade: D, name: Ralph Wiggum

Defect reports

The following behavior-changing defect reports were applied retroactively to previously published C++ standards.

DR Applied to Behavior as published Correct behavior
LWG 2796 C++11 triviality of the destructor of tuple was unspecified specified


  • C++20 standard (ISO/IEC 14882:2020):
  • 20.5 Tuples [tuple]
  • C++17 standard (ISO/IEC 14882:2017):
  • 23.5 Tuples [tuple]
  • C++14 standard (ISO/IEC 14882:2014):
  • 20.4 Tuples [tuple]
  • C++11 standard (ISO/IEC 14882:2011):
  • 20.4 Tuples [tuple]

See also

implements binary tuple, i.e. a pair of values
(class template)